Question Bank | Bio-12, Ch-15

Here is a vast collection of objective and subjective questions in this question bank of biology 12, chapter 15. Following types of questions have been included here.

  • MCQs (Textbook Exercise)
  • MCQs (Previous Boards Essentials)
  • SQs Topic-wise (Previous Boards Essentials + Textbook Conceptuals)
  • LQs (Previous Boards Essentials)

You can find solutions to these questions from our publication, “An Insight Into Objective Biology-12”.

MCQs (Textbook Exercise)

Q. Each question has four possible answers. Tick the correct one.

01: The protection of internal environment from the harms of fluctuation in external environment is termed: (RWP-16)

(a) Osmoregulation                         

(b) Thermoregulation

(c) Excretion                                   

(d) Homeostasis

02: The category of plants that has adaptation of small and thick leaves to limit water loss is called: (RWP-17)(AJK-17,18)(SWL-19)

(a) Hydrophytes                             

(b) Xerophytes

(c) Mesophytes                               

(d) Hygrophytes

03: The environment where the animals produce large volumes of urine.

(a) Hypotonic aquatic                     

(b) Isotonic aquatic

(c) Hypertonic aquatic                    

(d) Terrestrial

04: Which of the following is called excretophore i.e., contributing mainly in the elimination of wastes in plants?

(a) Stem 

(b) Roots

(c) Leaves                                       

(d) Flowers

05: The excretory product that requires minimum water for its removal is: (MLT-21)

(a) Urea 

(b) Uric acid

(c) Ammonia                                   

(d) Creatinine

06: The group of animals whose excretory system is structurally associated with digestive tract: (SRG-15)

(a) Vertebrates                                

(b) Earthworm

(c) Planarian                                    

(d) Insects

07: The excretory structures that deliver urine from kidney to urinary bladder.

(a) Urethra                                      

(b) Pelvis

(c) Ureter                                        

(d) Collecting tubule

08: The metabolic wastes that ingested into the body and must be removed. 

(a) Pesticides                                   

(b) Drugs

(c) Food additives                           

(d) All of these

09: Which of the following is not endotherm? (DGK-22)(SRG-14)(GJR-16)(MLT-18)

(a) Bird  

(b) Amphibian

(c) Flying insect                              

(d) Mammal

10: Name the type of adaptations from the following that is responsible for shivering thermogenesis.

(a) Structural                                   

(b) Physiological

(c) Behavioral                                 

(d) None of these

MCQs (Previous Boards Essentials)

Q. Each question has four possible answers. Tick the correct one.

01: In humans the homeostatic thermostat is present in: (RWP-19)(BWP-19)

(a) Amygdala                           

(b) Hippocampus

(c) Thalamus                            

(d) Hypothalamus

02: A diluted solution compared to the cell concentration is termed as: (LHR-14)(RWP-18)

(a) Hypertonic                         

(b) Xerophtes

(c) Mesophytes                       

(d) Aygrophytes

03: The more concentrated external environment is termed as: (DGK-14)(GJR-15)(SWL-15)(BWP-18)

(a) Hypotonic                          

(b) Hypertonic

(c) Isotonic                              

(d) Osmotic

04: Which one is not a mesophyte? (GJR-15,21)

(a) Brassica                              

(b) Rose

(c) Mango                                

(d) Cacti

05: The leaves with very small surface area , are found in: (RWP-19)

(a) Hydrophytes                      

(b) Mesophytes

(c) Xerophytes                         

(d) Sciophytes

06: The category of plants that has adaptation for reduced rate of transpiration: (SWL-21)

(a) Hydrophytes                      

(b) Xerophytes

(c) Mesophytes                       

(d) Bryophytes

07: A plant is adapted to remove the flooding of its cells in fresh water: (GJR-16,21)

(a) Mesophyte                         

(b) Cactus

(c) Hydrophyte                       

(d) Xerophyte

08: Which one is an example of Xerophytes? (SRG-17)

(a) Brassica                              

(b) Rose

(c) Mango                                

(d) Cactus

09: Contractile vacuoles are found in: (LHR-16,21)

(a) Plants

(b) Fresh water protozoa

(c) Terrestrial animals

(d) Marine plants

10: Fresh water protozoans are adapted to lose excess water by: (MLT-15)(FSL-19)(RWP-19)

(a) Food Vacuole                     

(b) Contractile Vacuole

(c) Pinocytosis                         

(d) Phagocytosis

11: Hag fishes are: (MLT-19)

(a) Osmoregulators                         

(b) Isotonic

(c) Hypertonic                                

(d) Hypotonic

12: Tri ethylamine oxide is produced in: (MLT-16,19)

(a) Hag fish                              

(b) Bony Fish

(c) Marine Fish                        

(d) Cartilaginous fish

13: Most cartilaginous fishes possess salt excreting organs known as the: (DGK-19)

(a) Caecal glands                     

(b) Foetal glands

(c) Rectal glands                      

(d) Sebaceous glands

14: The Tolerance of dehydration is called: (MLT-16)

(a) Osmoconformers               

(b) Osmoconformers

(c) Terrestrials                         

(d) Hypertonic

15: Animals that do not require to adjust their internal osmotic state actively are known: (FSL-16)

(a) Osmoregulators                 

(b) Osmoconformers

(c) Terrestrials                         

(d) Hypertonic

16: Among the vertebrates, hag fishes are isotonic with the surrounding: (MLT-17)

(a) Fresh water                        

(b) Sea water

(c) Pond water                        

(d) River water

17: Aquatic environment is classified as: (SRG-22)(MLT-17)

(a) Fresh water                        

(b) Marine Water

(c) Terrestrial                           

(d) Both a & b

18: The fishes which drink large amount of sea water and excrete concentrated urine are: (MLT-17)

(a) Cartilaginous fishes            

(b) Bony fishes

(c) Lung fishes                         

(d) Jawless fishes

19: Mechanism, which eliminates nitrogenous waste, is referred as: (SWL-14)

(a) Osmoregulation                 

(b) Excretion

(c) Thermoregulation              

(d) Ejection

20: Removal of salts with water from sweet glands and of sebum Is known as: (FSL-21)

(a) Excretory                           

(b) Protective

(c) Thermoregulation              

(d) Both B&C

21: Which part of the plant body serves as excretophores?  (LHR-15,15)(SWL-16)(MLT-21)

(a) Root                                   

(b) Stem

(c) Leaves                               

(d) Flowers

22: 1 g of ammonia nitrogen requires how much water for excretion: (LHR-16)(FSL-16)(SWL-18,21)(DGK-19)

(a) 50 ml                                 

(b) 100 ml

(c) 250 ml                               

(d) 500 ml

23: The excretory product that requires maximum water for its removal is: (MLT-14)(SWL-17)(FSL-18)

(a) Urea                                   

(b) Uric acid

(c) Ammonia                           

(d) Creatinine

24: Urea is detoxified form of _______ in the urea cycle which can be retained in the body. (GJR-15)

(a) Ammonia                           

(b) Nitrogen

(c) Uric acid                            

(d) CO2

25: Animals excreting urea are called: (GJR-15)(SRG-15)(LHR-18)

(a) Ammonotelic                     

(b) Aminotelic

(c) Urotelic                              

(d) Uricotelic

26: Number of Ammonia molecules required to produce one molecule of urea is: (LHR-15)(RWP-18)

(a) 01                                       

(b) 02

(c) 03                                       

(d) 04

27: Nitrogenous waste is very toxic and dissolves quickly in body fluid is: (DGK-14,18)(FSL-15)

(a) CO2                                    

(b) Urea

(c) Ammonia                           

(d) Uric acid

28: Flame cells are part of excretory system of: (LHR-14)(BWP-16)(DGK-17)(SRG-18)

(a) Hydra                                 

(b) Cockroach

(c) Planaria                              

(d) Earthworm

29: Animals of the group of flatworms have simple tubular excretory system called as: (RWP-16)

(a) Kidney                               

(b) Nephron

(c) Nephridia                           

(d) Protonephridia

30: Excretory system of planaria is called: (MLT-19)

(a) Protonephridium                

(b) Metanephridium

(c) Malpighian Tubules           

(d) Renal Tubules

31: The planaria flatworm have simple tubular excretory system known as: (DGK-16)((LHR-18)

(a) Protonephridium                

(b) Metanephridium

(c) Nephron                            

(d) Kidney

32: A network of closed tubule without internal openings is called: (LHR-15)

(a) Protonephridium                

(b) Metanephridium

(c) Nephron                            

(d) Kidney

33: There is no structural and functional relationships between nutritive and excretory system in: (SRG-22)

(a) Planarian                            

(b) Earthworm

(c) Cockroach                          

(d) All a, b & c

34: Cockroach and other insects remove their nitrogenous waste in form of: (LHR-15)(FSL-15)(BWP-19)

(a) Ammonia                           

(b) Urea

(c) Uric acid                            

(d) Creatinine

35: Among vertebrates, uric acid is the chief nitrogenous waste in birds and: (LHR-19)

(a) Fishes                                 

(b) Amphibians

(c) Reptiles                              

(d) Mammals

36: Fresh water Flatworms excrete: (GJR-22)(BWP-15)

(a) Very Dilute Urine

(b) Very concentrated urine

(c) Slightly concentrated urine

(d) Moderately concentrated urine

37: The tubular excretory system of Planaria is: (AJK-15)

(a) Protonephridia                   

(b) Metanephridia

(c) Mesonephridia                   

(d) Eunephridia

38: Protonephridium is found in: (GJR-14)

(a) Hydra                                 

(b) Planaria

(c) Earthworm                         

(d) Cockroach

39: Metanephridia are the excretory structures present in: (BWP-14)(GJR-18)

(a) Hydra                                 

(b) Planaria

(c) Cockroach                          

(d) Earthworm

40: Malpighian tubules remove nitrogenous waste from: (LHR-19)

(a) Lymph                                

(b) Haemolymph

(c) Coelomic Fluid                  

(d) Hind gut

41: Excretory structures present in cockroach are: (DGK-14)

(a) Contractile vacuole            

(b) Malpighian tubules

(c) Nephridia                           

(d) Flame cells

42: The partly digested food in cockroach is temporarily stored in: (LHR-17)

(a) Crop                                   

(b) Gizzard

(c) Rectum                               

(d) Stomach

43: Of all the excretory products, the principle one is:  (MLT-17)

(a) Ammonia                           

(b) Urea

(c) Uric acid                            

(d) Bilirubin

44: Arginase splits the arginine to form urea and: (GJR-17)

(a) Ornithine                           

(b) Citruline

(c) Creatinine                          

(d) Ammonia

45: Metabolism of purines and pyrimidines produce significant amount of: (LHR-14)

(a) Creatinine                          

(b) Creartine

(c) Xanthine                             

(d) Trimethyl amine oxide

46: The removal of Sebum on the skin is for: (SRG-15 )(BWP-15)

(a) Nutrition                            

(b) Excretion

(c) Protection                           

(d) Thermoregulation

47: The central station of metabolism and the body’s central metabolic clearing agent is: (SRG-21)(LHR-14)(GJR-14)(AJK-18)

(a) Stomach                             

(b) Liver

(c) Kidneys                              

(d) Gut

48: Which of the following is not synthesized in Liver? (SWL-15)

(a) Urea                                   

(b) Uric acid

(c) Albumin                             

(d) Urine

49: The compound which takes part in urea cycle is: (RWP-19)

(a) Adenine                             

(b) Guanine

(c) Citruline                             

(d) Thymine

50: Liver functions are pivotal to: (FSL-22)

(a) Osmoregulation                 

(b) Excretion

(c) Homeostasis                      

(d) Thermoregulation

51: Liver synthesizes: (AJK-21)

(a) Iron                                    

(b) Glycogen

(c) Glucose                             

(d) Bile

52: Urea is produced in: (GJR-17)

(a) Lungs                                 

(b) Liver

(c) Kidneys                              

(d) Pancreas

53: Urine leaves the kidney through a duct called: (LHR-16)(SWL-22)

(a) Urethra                              

(b) Pelvic

(c) Ureter                                

(d) Nephron

54: Glomerular filtrate are reabsorbed in: (MLT-18)

(a) Proximal tubule                  

(b) Bowman’s capsule

(c) Loop of Henle                    

(d) Distal tubule

55: In each nephron inner and form a cup shaped swelling called: (DGK-18)

(a) Glomerulus                        

(b) Henle’s loop

(c) Bowman’s capsule             

(d)   Pelvis

56: Pressure filtration in kidney specifically occurs at: (GJR-16)(RWP-22)

(a) Bowman’s capsule             

(b) Loop of Henle

(c) Vasa recta                          

(d) Urine collecting

57: Mammalian kidney including human is adapted to conserve water up to: (MLT-15)(BWP-22)

(a) 69.5%                                

(b) 79.5%

(c) 89.5%                                

(d) 99.5%

58: The urine leaves the body during urination from bladder through a tube called: (MLT-15)

(a) Pelvic                                 

(b) Urethra

(c) Ureter                                

(d) Medulla

59: Blood supplied to Kidneys from each cardiac beat is: (RWP-14)(FSL-21)(GJR-19)

(a) 10%                                   

(b) 20%

(c) 30%                                   

(d) 50%

60: In Juxtamedullary nephrons additional capillaries extend down to form a loop of vessels called: (FSL-14)(LHR-17(AJK-17,21)

(a) Peritubular Capillaries        

(b) Efferent arterioles

(c) Vasa recta                          

(d) Glomerulus

61: All the collecting tubules of human kidney finally discharge into the: (FSL-17)

(a) Bowman’s Capsule            

(b) Glomerulus

(c) Pelvic                                 

(d) Urethra

62: Which one of the following structures of kidney is involved in the production of concentrated urine? (LHR-17)

(a) Glomerulus                        

(b) Juxtamedullary nephron

(c) Cortical nephron                

(d) Vasa recta

63: A pair of kidneys consist of millions of functional units called: (DGK-17)

(a) Nephrons                           

(b) Neuyrons

(c) Dendrons                           

(d) Flatrons

64: The reabsorption of water in collecting tubules is under the control of: (BWP-21)(DGK-21)

(a) Aldosterone                       

(b) ADH

(c) Tubular secretion               

(d) Pressure filtration

65: Aldosterone is secreted from: (AJK-22)

(a) Renal cortex                       

(b) Adrenal cortex

(c) Renal medulla                    

(d) Adrenal medulla

66: The blood vessel supplying the blood to Bowman’s capsule is: (LHR-18)

(a) Afferent arterioles              

(b) Efferent arterioles

(c) Renal artery                       

(d) Renal vein

67: The active reabsorption(uptake)  of Sodium in the ascending limb of Henle is promoted by: (RWP-21,17,19)(LHR-19)(DGK-19)

(a) Aldosterone                       

(b) ADH

(c) Tubular secretion               

(d) Pressure filtration

68: Non-surgical removal of kidney stone is called: (SWL-16)(BWP-21)

(a) Dialysis                              

(b) Lithotripsy

(c) Uremia                               

(d) Kidney transplant

69: High degree of renal failure is also called: (DGK-16)(SRG-18)

(a) Uremia                               

(b) Leukemia

(c) Anemia                              

(d) Lithotripsy

70: The incidence of calcium oxalate type stones of kidney are: (LHR-14,15,16)(DGK-14)(SRG-15,16)(BWP-16)

(a) 40%                                   

(b) 50%

(c) 60%                                   

(d) 70%

71: The incidence of uric acid stone in kidney is: (FSL-19)

(a) 10%                                   

(b) 15%

(c) 20%                                   

(d) 70%

71: The incidence of calcium phosphate stones in humans are: (RWP-17)

(a) 5%                                     

(b) 10%

(c) 15%                                   

(d) 20%

72: The high degree renal failure is called: (GJR-15)

(a) Uremia                               

(b) End stage renal disease

(c) Both A & B                         

(d) Ureducty

73: The human Abdominal cavity is lined by a thin epithelium called: (MLT-14)(SWL-17)(DGK-17)

(a) Ectoderm                            

(b) Endoderm

(c) Peritoneum                        

(d) Epidermis

74: Hemodialysis means: (LHR-17)

(a) Removing the blood           

(b) Clearing the blood

(c) Diluting the blood              

(d) Storing the blood

75: High level of circulating calcium in the blood is called: (BWP-17)

(a) Hypercalcemia                  

(b) Hypoglycemia

(c) Osteomalacia                     

(d) Hyperoxaluria

76: Super cool cytosol, without ice formation, is caused by: (RWP-14)

(a) Heat shock proteins           

(b) Unsaturated fatty acids

(c) Solutes                               

(d) Enzymes

77: Most land mammals respond to cold by raising their: (DGK-16)

(a) Skin                                    

(b) Flurs

(c) Bristies                               

(d) Spines

78: The mechanism of evaporative cooling in respiratory tract of dog is known as: (DGK-15,16)

(a) Panting                               

(b) Shivering thermogenesis

(c) Thermoregulation              

(d) Vasodilation

79: Which one of the following is an endotherm? (FSL-14)(DGK-15)

(a) Humming bird                   

(b) Reptiles (lizard)

(c) Birds                                   

(d) Bat

80: Bats and humming birds are called: (LHR-19)(MLT-19)

(a) Ectoderm                            

(b) Endotherms

(c) Ectotherms                         

(d) Heterotherms

81: Which of the following is an ectotherm? (RWP-21)

(a) Bird                                    

(b) Humming Bird

(c) Amphibians                        

(d) Bat

82: Most Invertebrates, fishes, amphibians & reptiles are included in: (SRG-21)

(a) Ectotherms                         

(b) Endotherms

(c) Heterotherms                     

(d) Homotherms

83: Activation of Sweat Glands to produce sweat for evaporative cooling is a type of adaption: (BWP-14)

(a) Structural                            

(b) Physiological

(c) Behavioral                          

(d) None of these

84: The rate of heat production is increased by increasing muscle contraction, by movement is called: (SRG-15)

(a) Thermoregulation              

(b) Shivering thermogenesis

(c) Non-shivering thermogenesis   

(d) Thermostat

85: Saliva and urine are used for evaporative cooling by: (MLT-14)(DGK-15)

(a) Bat                                      

(b) Dogs

(c) Birds                                   

(d) Seals

86: Bats use… for evaporating cooling: (LHR-22)

(a) Saliva                                 

(b) Urine

(c) Shivering                           

(d) Both a & b

87: The body temperature regulation in human is based on complex homeostatic thermostat present in the: (LHR-17)

(a) Cerebrum                           

(b) Medulla Oblongata

(c) Hypothalamus                    

(d) Thalamus

88: Animals inhabiting environment with acute shortage: (SRG-17)

(a) Ammonia                           

(b) Uric acid

(c) Urea                                   

(d) Allantoin

89: In bacterial and viral infections, pathogens and leukocytes cell produce a chemical called: (BWP-17)

(a) Pyrexia                               

(b) Toxins

(c) Aflatoxins                           

(d) Pyrogen

90: Germ theory of disease was formulated by: (LHR-17)

(a) Robert Koch                       

(b) Louis Pasteur

(c) Edward Jenner                    

(d) Christian Gram

91: Bats and humming birds are called: (LHR-18)

(a) Ectotherms                         

(b) Excretion

(c) Thermoregulation              

(d) Ejection

92: Chemical that cause fever and are produced from blood cells are: (SRG-16)(GJR-18)

(a) Bilirubin                             

(b) Interferons

(c) Pyrogens                            

(d) Antibodies



Q.01: What do you mean by homeostasis? (LHR-14)(GJR14)(FSL-14)(BWP-14)(SRG-15)(RWP-16)(AJK-18,21) (DGK-21)

Q.02: Define homeostasis and give components of Homeostatic Control System? (BWP-21)

Q.03: How negative feedback mechanism helps body to regulate temperature? (GJR-22)

Q.04: Difference between Osmoregulation and thermoregulation. (SRG-15)(DGK-15,17)(LHR-17,19)(RWP-19)

Q.05: Difference between Osmoregulation and excretion. (BWP-19)

Q.06: What components of internal environment we affected by external fluctuations? How are these corrected? (LHR-22)

Q.07: Define Excretion. (DGK-17)

Q.08: Compare physical control system with living control system. (AJK-17)(RWP-17)(SRG-21)

Q.09: Describe thermostat function and feedback control in human. (BWP-17)(SRG-21)


Q.10: What is hypertonic environment and what changes occur in a cell in such environment? (LHR-16)

Q.11: What may happen to a cell when placed in a hypotonic environment and then in a hypotonic environment? (LHR-22)

Q.12: Differentiate between hypotonic and hypertonic environment. (GJR-15,17,18,19,21)(DGK-16,21)(MLT-21)(SWL-19)

Q.13: What are Hydrophytes? What are their important adaptations? (LHR-14)(GJR-15)

Q.14: Compare osmoregulation in marine fishes and fresh water fishes. (FSL-21)

Q.15: What are Mesophytes? Give examples. (MLT-14)(RWP-14)(SRG-15)

Q.16: Compare hydrophytes with mesophytes. (SRG-21)

Q.17: Write four osmoregulatory adaptations in Xerophytes. (FSL-14)(DGK-14)(LHR-15,17,18)(GJR-15)(SRG-16)

Q.18: How loss of water is prevented in insects and terrestrial vertebrates? (RWP-19)

Q.19: Write at least two characteristics of xerophytes. (FSL-19)(MLT-19)

Q.20: Write down the two adaptations of plants for terrestrial Ecosystems? (AJK-22)(DGK-19)

Q.21: What are the adaptations have been made by xerophytes to limit water loss? (SRG-22)(SWL-22)(BWP-22)

Q.22: How are xerophytes adopted to survive in dry environment? (FSL-22)(AJK-21,22)

Q.23: How arthropods and mammals overcome the problem of evaporative water loss? (MLT-21)

Q.24: Differentiate between osmoconformers & osmoregulators. (MLT-14,19)(RWP-14,17,18)(GJR-15)(DGK-15)(BWP-15,16)(SRG-15,16)(LHR-14,25,16,21)(FSL-17)(SWL-18)(AJK-21)

Q.25: What is contractile vacuole? (BWP-14)(AJK-15)

Q.26: Explain the role of contractile vacuole in Amoeba? (DGK-21)

Q.27: Define Anhydrobiosis with an example. (LHR-14,18)(FSL-14,14,17,21)(DGK-15,16,16,19)(GJR-16)(BWP-16,19)(AJK-16)(SRG-17)(RWP-17,18)(LHR-18)

Q.28: Define excretophore and anhydrobiosis with one example. (FSL-21)

Q.29: How Osmoregulation takes place in marine environment? (MLT-17)

Q.30: How do marine fishes retain trimethylamine oxide in their body? (RWP-22)

Q.31: How do ebony fishes excrete extra salt in marine environment? (GJR-22)


Q.32: What are excretophores? (RWP-19)(SWL-22)

Q.33: What are excretophores and why? (FSL-15)(SRG-15)(BWP-18)(LHR-19)

Q.34: Differentiate between excreptophore and ebony. (LHR-14)(FSL-14,16)(RWP-14)(DGK-14,15)(BWP-15)(SRG-17)

Q.35: Briefly describe urea cycle. (GJR-14,15)(LHR-14)(RWP-15)(SWL-16)(DGK-16,)(MLT-16)

Q.36: How level of urea and metabolic wastes increases in human body? (DGK-22)

Q.37: Discuss how urea is formed from Ammonia? (BWP-22)

Q.38: Write down the three steps involved in urine formation. (GJR-19)

Q.39: Draw labeled sketch of Urea cycle. (GJR-14)(SRG-15)(MLT-16)(DGK-16,19)(RWP-17)(AJK-17,18)(LHR-18) (SWL-19,22)

Q.40: Give structural formula of urea and uric acid. (SWL-14)(SRG-15)(DGK-14,17)(LHR-15)(MLT-21)

Q.41: Justify the statement. “Excretion of uric acid in some terrestrial animals in an adaptation to conserve water”. (LHR-22)

Q.42: Difference between ammonotelic and uricotelic animals. Give examples. (SRG-22)

Q.43: What is evolutionary importance of remotely ureotely and uricotely? (DGK-18)

Q.44: What is difference between ureotelic and uricotelic animals? (SRG-14,15,19)(MLT-14)(SWL-17)

Q.45: Which nitrogenous wastes are produced by the metabolism of purines and pyrimidine? (GJR-21)

Q.46: Differentiate between protonephridium and metanephridium. (LHR-19)(FSL-14,18)(GJR-17)(FSL-22)(AJK-19)

Q.47: What are flame cells and why are these called so? (LHR-14,14)(GJR-14)(RWP-14)(FSL-16)(SWL-17)(SRG-17,19)

Q.48: What is Metanephridium? In which organism is it found? (GJR-15)(RWP-17)

Q.49: What are Malpighian tubules? In which organisms they are found? (DGK-15)(GJR-19)


Q.50: What are different metabolic wastes in human? (DGK-14)

Q.51: What are metabolic wastes? (DGK-14)

Q.52: Name waste products produced during metabolism of purine and pyrimidine. (GJR-16)

Q.53: Draw and label human Kidney. (SWL-14)

Q.54: What is the function of Bile? (SWL-17)

Q.55: Write two important functions of liver. (MLT-17)

Q.56: Skin does not come within the category of excretory organs. Comments. (LHR-19)

Q.57: Differentiate between afferent and efferent arteries? (LHR-16)

Q.58: Define Nephron. Give its types. (MLT-21)

Q.59: What are Juxtamedullary nephrons? Give their importance. (RWP-16)(MLT-16)(DGK-19)

Q.60: What is ADH and how does it function? (SWL-18)(DGK-18)

Q.61: Write two differences between cortical nephron and juxtamedullary nephron. (SWL-21)

Q.62: Differentiate between Ureter and Urethra. (GJR-14,21)

Q.63: What is Glomerular Filtrate? (MLT-15)(SRG-16)(FSL-21)

Q.64: How do aldosterone and ADH help in concentration of urine? (RWP-22)

Q.65: What is counter current multiplier mechanism in nephrons works? (FSL-14)(GJR-15)(LHR-17,18,19) (AJK-22)

Q.66: What is vasa recta? Write its function. (AJK-17)

Q.67: Define uremia. What is its permanent treatment? (DGK-16,17)(SWL-21)

Q.68: What is Renal failure? (BWP-16)(LHR-17)

Q.69: What is peritoneal dialysis? (RWP-15)(SWL-16)

Q.70: Differentiate between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. (LHR-18)

Q.71: Write a short note kidney transplantation. (RWP-15)(SWL-16)

Q.72: Describe the procedure adopted to remove kidney stones. (FSL-22)

Q.73: What are hypercalcemia and hyperoxaluria? (BWP-14)(MLT-17,17,21)(GJR-17)

Q.74: What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy? (LHR-14)

Q.75: What is lithotripsy? (SRG-14)(AJK-15)(LHR-16)(FSL-16,17,19)(GJR-16,21)(DGK-21)(BWP-21)

Q.76: Define dialysis. Give its types. (BWP-17)(GJR-21)

Q.77: What is hemodialysis? Give its importance. (LHR-15)(DGK-19)

Q.78: Define peritoneal dialysis. (RWP-21)

Q.79: What are heat shock proteins? (MLT-15,18)(LHR-16,16)


Q.80: Give adaptations in plants to manage high temperature. (SWL-14)(RWP-14)(GJR-22)

Q.81: By which phenomenon organisms adapt wide range of habitats? Give its two examples. (BWP-22)

Q.82: What are heterotherms? Give example. (DGK-14)

Q.83: How ectotherms are different from heterotherms? (AJK-19)

Q.84: Differentiate between endotherms and ectotherms. (LHR-15,19)(DGK-15)(AJK-16)(SRG-18)(SWL-21)

Q.85: Define poikilotherms? Give one example. (DGK-21)(BWP-21)

Q.86: Differentiate between poikilotherms and homeotherms. (RWP-21)

Q.87: Give behavioral adaptations for regulation of heat exchange between an animal and environment. (RWP-19)

Q.88: Give structural adaptations for regulation of heat exchange between an animal and environment (FSL-15)(MLT-16)

Q.89: What are physiological adaptations of heat exchange in animals? (SWL-19)(SRG-17)

Q.90: Why the temperature of body is increased in fever? (AJK-16)(MLT-18)

Q.91: Differentiate between shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. (GJR-14,18)(LHR-15)(DGK-17)(FSL-17)

Q.92: Differentiate between vasodilation and vasoconstriction. (DGK-21)

Q.93: How marine mammals adapted to live in cold water?


Q.94: How animals inhabiting cold marine water maintain body heat? Give examples. (DGK-22)

Q.95: Define panting and pyrogens. (SWL-21)(LHR-21)(MLT-19)

Q.96: What is pyrexia? (FSL-21)(DGK-19)

Q.97: Define panting with one example. (GJR-21)(FSL-21)

Q.98: How plants respond to cold stress? (SRG-19)

Q.99: How mammals thermoregulate in cold environments? (BWP-17)

Q.100: Define the term Heat Shock Proteins. (RWP-19)(MLT-21)

Q.101: What is blubber? Write its function. (AJK-17)

Q.102: What do you mean by pyrexia and pyrogens? (SWL-14)(DGK-14)(FSL-15,18)(LHR-17)(RWL-17,18,19)

Q.103: How temperature in fever is useful for human body? (DGK-22)



Q.01: Explain the phenomenon of Osmoregulation in plants.  (LHR-14)(GJR-15,15)(FSL-19)(SRG-21)

Q.02: Describe Osmoregulation in marine environment. (DGK-14,16)(LHR-14,15)(SRG-15)(GJR-21)(AJK-19)

Q.03: Describe Osmoregulation in marine and fresh water animals. (DGK-22)

Q.04: Discuss the osmoregulatory strategies in the animals of terrestrial animals. (SRG-22)(RWP-21,22)

Q.05: Describe Osmoregulation of animals in different environments. (LHR-15)(SRG-15)


Q.06: Explain excretion in plants. (LHR-14,18)(GJR-14,16,17)(BWP-16,17)(AJK-16)(MLT-17)(DGK-19)

Q.07: Discuss the nature of excretory products in different habitats. (SWL-14)

Q.08: Discuss the excretion in Planaria. (LHR-15)

Q.09: Write a detailed note on Excretion in earthworm with the help of diagram. (LHR-19)(FSL-22)(MLT-19)

Q.10: Discuss Excretion in cockroach. (SRG-16,19)(LHR-16,19)(DGK-18)(SWL-22)

Q.11: Highlight the role of liver as excretory organ.  (LHR-17,18)(AJK-21)

Q.12: Explain the Urea Cycle in details. (MLT-21)


Q.13: Give four major homeostatic functions of liver.  (LHR-17,18)

Q.14: Describe the structure and function of Nephron in human kidneys. (BWP-14)(FSL-15)(MLT-15)(AJK-15)(RWP-16,17)(SWL-19)

Q.15: Describe the structure and function of nephron in human Kidney. (RWP-18)(LHR-21)

Q.16: What are Nephrons? Draw its labeled diagram.  (AJK-22)

Q.17: Draw a labeled diagram of a vertebrate Nephron with all blood supply. State the function of each. (AJK-18)(BWP-22)

Q.18: Discuss counter-current multiplier with reference to concentration of excretory products. (BWP-21)

Q.19: Describe kidney as an osmoregulatory organ. (FSL-15)(AJK-15)

Q.20: Explain urinary system of human. (MLT-15,17)

Q.21: Discuss Kidney problems and their cures. (LHR-14)(SRG-14,15)(RWP-14)(MLT-16)(GJR-22)

Q.22: Write a comprehensive note on dialysis. (DGK-21)

Q.23: What is Renal Failure? Describe its cure. (RWP-14)


Q.24: Describe the adaptations in plants to low and high temperature. (LHR-22)(SWL-17,21)(FSL-21)(BWP-19)

Q.25: Discuss the temperature classification of animals. (SRG-17)

Q.26: Describe thermoregulatory strategies in Mammals including human in cold temperature. (FSL-14)(DGK-15)(BWP-15)(LHR-17)(AJL-17)

Q.27: Describe the mechanism of thermoregulation in plants. (GJR-19)

Q.28: Describe the mechanism of thermoregulation in mammals. (GJR-18)

NOTE: Study and utilize this treasure of questions in your preparations. Also give your opinion in comments to improve this effort. Your verdict will have a meaning for us. Thanks a lot!

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